The experimental station SOL3PES is  a state-of-the-art experimental setup to study solid, solution and solar-cell systems by soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is equipped with a high-transmission hemispherical electron analyzer for detecting electrons emitted from small molecular aggregates, nanoparticles, or biochemical molecules and their components in (aqueous) solutions, either in vacuum or in an ambient pressure environment. In addition to conventional energy-resolved electron detection, SOL3 enables detection of electron angular distributions by the combination of a ±11° acceptance angle of the electron analyzer and a rotation of the analyzer in the polarization plane of the incoming synchrotron-light beam.


SOL3 setup with a hemispherical electron analyzer in two different detection positions (90° and 15° emission angles). Components for (fine-) adjusting of the frame and the analyzer are indicated. (A) Interaction chamber. (B) Sketch of the analyzer and electron lens (e.g., L1) and pre-lens (e.g., L1p) systems. Typical pressures are shown. (C) Top view of the three-component differential pumping unit. This unit is mounted on the backside of the main vacuum chamber and cannot be seen in the main figure.