HE SGM Station

HE SGM Station - NEXAFS/XPS station at the HE-SGM beamline

The NEXAFS/XPS experimental station is a multi-chamber UHV system produced by PREVAC (Poland) and consists of the following chambers:

1. Two load-locks: the first one is used for fast sample exchange with a storage facility of up to six samples; the second one is used for sample exchange with a storage facility for two sample holders and with an opportunity to install a special vacuum transfer box allowing to transport samples under UHV conditions. Moreover, the park station connected to the distribution chamber allows the storage of six additional sample holders under UHV conditions.

2. The unique sample transfer system including the distribution chamber of the carrousel-type (a base pressure better than 10-10 mbar) and manipulators allow fast (less than 1 minute) transfer of samples from one chamber to another. It was established that during the sample transfer in the cold state (~100 K) the temperature doesn't increase by more than 20 K.

3. A versatile preparation chamber operated at a base pressure of better tha 5x10-10 mbar accepting up to 5 evaporators for metals or organics and/or other sources (for example, atomic H source, etc.), two sputter guns, gas dosing systems, as well as an LEED system for control of sample quality. One of the evaporators is permanently installed and available to all HE-SGM users. A special receiving station of the manipulator allows for cooling with liquid nitrogen to 100 K and for heating up to 2000 K.

4. A main chamber with base pressuer of better than 10-10 mbar is equipped with a hemispheric electron energy analyser (Scienta R3000), a sputter gun, and a home-built double channel plane detector enabling NEXAFS spectroscopy in partial electron yield (PEY) or total electron yield (TEY) mode. The energy analyser and the MCP-NEXAFS detector can be read out at the same time thus allowing simultaneous recording of integrated secondary electrons (PEY or TEY) and energy-resolved Auger electrons. For the measurements the sample is transferred to a 5-axes manipulator with three translational and two rotational (polar and azimuthal) degrees of freedom. A continuous-flow liquid He cryostat installed in the chamer allows sample cooling down to 30 K, while samples can be heated up to 2000 K (depending on the sample holder).

Instrument responsible, Dr. Alexei Nefedov

Instrument responsible, Dr. Alexei Nefedov

Fig.1 HE-SGM experimental station

Fig.1 HE-SGM experimental station

Properties of the experimental station

Properties of the experimental station

List of publications
Station data
Temperature range 50-1200K
Pressure Range See instrumentt description for details
Detector Scienta R3000 for XPS, PEY/TEY detector for NEXAFS
Manipulators X,Y,Z motion - manually, polar and azimuthal rotation with step motors
Sample holder compatibility PREVAC-type sample holder




Instrument applications:

  • Metal-organic frameworks and their loading with gases and metal nanoparticles
  • Adsorption of organic molecules on metal oxides
  • Novel carbon-based materials (including their functionalization)
  • Development of NEXAFS and XPS methods for the characterization of bio-sensing platforms
  • SR-XPS and NEXAFS investigation of ionic liquids
  • Charge transfer dynamics in molecular films
  • Dipole control at surfaces and interfaces using monomolecular films
  • Optically controlled molecular switches
  • Ultra-thin molecular and polymeric membranes
  • Novel molecular functional films
  • Lithography with a monomolecular resist
  • Metallo-organic oligomeric films: design and applications



1. Alexei Nefedov, Christof Wöll (2013): Advanced Applications of NEXAFS Spectroscopy of Functionalized Surfaces, in Surface Science Techniques, (Eds) G. Bracco and B. Holst, Springer Series in Surface Science, v. 51 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo) pp 277 - 303.

2. F. Klappenberger, Two-dimensional functional molecular nanoarchitectures - complementary investigations with scanning tunneling spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy, Prog. Surf. Sci. 89 (2014) 1 - 55.


Highlighted publications

1. W. Khalid, M. El Helou, T. Murböck, Z. Yue, J.-M. Montenegro, K. Schubert, G. Göberl, F. Lisdat, G. Witte and W.J. Parak, Immobilization of quantum dots via conjugated self-assembled monolayers and their application as light-controlled sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide, ACS Nano 5 (12) (2011) 9870.

2. M. Nuruzzaman Khan, V. Tjong, A. Chilkoti and M. Zharnikonv, Fabrication of ssDNA/oligo(ethylene glycol) monolayers and complex nanostructures by an irradiation-promoted exchange reaction, Angew. Chem. Int Ed. 51 (2012) 10303 - 10306.

3. S. Richter, J. Poppenberg, C.H.-H. Traulsen, E. Darlatt, A. Sokolowski, D. Sattler, W.E.S. Unger and C.A. Schalley, Deposition of ordered layers of tetralactam macrocycles and ether rotaxanes on pyridine-terminated self-assembled monolayers on gold, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 (2012) 16289 - 16297.

4. W. Auwärter, K. Seufert, F. Bischoff, D. Ècija, S. Vijayaraghavan, S. Joshi, F. Klappenberger, N. Samudrala and J.V. Barth, A surface-anchored molecular four-level conductance switch based on single proton transfer, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7 (2012) 41 - 46.

5. A. Paris, N. Verbitsky, A. Nefedov, Y. Wang, A.V. Fedorov, D. Haberer, M. Oehzelt, L. Petaccia, D. Usachov, D.V. Vyalikh, H. Sachdev, C. Wöll, M. Knupfer, B. Büchner, L. Calliari, L.V. Yashina, S. Irle and A. Grüneis, Kinetic isotope effect in the hydrogenation and deuteration of graphene, Adv. Funct. Mater. 23 (2013) 1628 - 1635.