Activities in the department of microstructure and residual stress analysis focus on the operation of large scale synchrotron and neutron facilities at BESSY II and BER II, respectively. It aims at the characterization of structure and properties of materials on different length scales extending from nano- to macroscopic dimensions. Complemented by X-ray laboratory facilities, advanced diffraction and scattering methods are provided for the materials science community at universities, research institutes and industry. In-house research centers on the development and improvement of methods for nano- and microstructure-, residual stress- and texture analysis as well as on their application to a wide spectrum of materials ranging from photovoltaics, proton and oxygen conducting materials, battery materials to (non)metallic glasses.