Achieving a reliable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly energy supply has emerged as one of the most striking challenges for global society. It requires energy conversion and energy storage. Energy conversion technologies include photovoltaics, solar fuels, and thermoelectric generators, while energy storage concerns batteries and hydrogen storage technologies. Pivotal to these applications are advanced materials. Nanoparticle, hybrid, and superlattice materials enable the design and optimization of novel materials. Integral part of the research of the institute is conducted at EMIL, the Energy Materials In-situ Laboratory Berlin at BESSY II. EMIL combines a large variety of synthesis and deposition techniques for various material classes with sophisticated synchrotron-based analytics which can probe thin-layer and interface properties with both lateral and in-depth resolution on the nanometer scale.