Operando X-ray Radiography
First operando X-ray Radiography of a Li/S cell
A novel multidimensional operando setup was designed to investigate the complex processes in Li/S cells during charging/discharging with X-ray radiography.[1,2] The Figure on the right gives a view of the cell (diameter: 8 mm) in the charged and discharged state. Two different sulfur phases occur during the charging step that can be identified by their characteristic crystal habits as α-S and β-S. The formation of β-sulfur during one complete charge/discharge cycle can be seen in the video on the right. The crystallization and dissolution of sulfur can directly be correlated with charge-transfer processes identified by impedance spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, our investigation is the first operando-radiography of a Li/S cell.
 S. Risse, C.J. Jafta, Y. Yang, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, I. Manke, M. Ballauff, Multidimensional operando analysis of macroscopic structure evolution in lithium sulfur cells by X-ray radiography, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18 (2016) 10630
 Y. Yang, S. Risse, S. Mei, C. J. Jafta, Y. Lu, C. Stöcklein, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, J. Gong, Z. Kochovski, M. Ballauff, Binder-free carbon monolith cathode material for operando investigation of high performance lithium-sulfur batteries with X-ray radiography, Energy Storage Materials 9 (2017) 96