Optimization of material surfaces using XPS

The surface of a material is the interface to other materials (eg in multi-layer systems) or to its environment. The performance of many modern materials can be optimized by better understanding the physical and chemical interactions on the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the standard techniques when it comes to the analysis of material surfaces. It finds application in a variety of materials. In combination with high intensities and selectable photon energies of the synchrotron radiation in BESSY II it is possible to make depth-dependent chemical analyzes by XPS.