Nandayapa, E.R.; Hirselandt, K.; Boeffel, C.; Unger, E.L.; List-Kratochvil, E. J. W.: Unraveling Reversible Quenching Processes of O2, N2, Ar, and H2O in Metal Halide Perovskites at Moderate Photon Flux Densities. Advanced Optical Materials 9 (2021), p. 2001317/1-10
10.1002/adom.202001317
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Abstract:
Metal halide perovskites (MHP), as used in photovoltaic (PV) applications, show a rich photophysics in inert and ambient atmosphere. The presence of atmospheric molecules leads to processes that enhance as well as reduce their photoluminescence (PL) emission. Various phenomena are previously described for a wide variety of gas molecules and different classes of MHP, with a particular interest on the long-term stability for PV applications. However, reversible PL quenching (PLQ) processes, which may be regarded equally important for the performance of PV and other optoelectronic applications, are neglected in other studies. This holds true for O2 and H2O, but especially for low-reactive gases such as nitrogen and argon. Using low excitation densities, it is shown that noticeable—and reversible—PLQ, in addition to PL enhancements, can already be observed for O2, N2, and Ar as well as for H2O at low concentrations of 1 mbar. The nature and origin of the quenching processes are further elucidated by applying the Stern–Volmer analysis, also employed to determine whether static and dynamic PLQ processes happen for the different quenching gases. The strongest static PLQ is found for O2 and H2O. MHPs in N2 and Ar atmospheres display a moderate PLQ effect.