Garcia-Moreno, M.; Mukherjee, M.; Jimenez, C.; Rack, A.; Banhart, J.: Metal Foaming Investigated by X-ray Radioscopy. Metals 2 (2012), p. 10-21
10.3390/met2010010

Abstract:
The use of X-ray radioscopy for in-situ studies of metal foam formation and evolution is reviewed. Selected results demonstrate the power of X-ray radioscopy as diagnostic tool for metal foaming. Qualitative analyses of foam nucleation and evolution, drainage development, issues of thermal contact, mold filling, cell wall rupture and more are given. Additionally, quantitative analyses based on series of images of foam expansion yielding coalescence rates, density distributions, etc., are performed by dedicated software. These techniques help us to understand the foaming behavior of metals and to improve both foaming methods and foam quality.