Rößler, R.; Leendertz, C.; Korte, L.; Mingirulli, N.; Rech, B.: Impact of the transparent conductive oxide work function on injection-dependent a-Si:H/c-Si band bending and solar cell parameters. Journal of Applied Physics 113 (2013), p. 144513/1-8
10.1063/1.4799042

Abstract:
An analysis of the contact formation between degenerated n-type transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and p-type amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) as it is used for front side contacts in high efficiency a-Si:H/crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction solar cells is presented. It is shown that the deposition of a TCO on a (p)a-Si:H emitter layer causes a reduction of charge carrier lifetime in low injection levels which leads to a lowering of the implied fill factor. Simulation based analysis of charge carrier lifetime and direct measurements by surface photovoltage reveals that TCO deposition induces a change of the c-Si band bending. The magnitude of this change depends on the (p)a-Si:H doping level. Both observations are explained by the impact of the TCO/a-Si:H work function difference on the c-Si band bending. Based on numerical simulations, the reduced injection-dependent band bending is identified as the reason for the reduced fill factor of final solar cells.