Schubert, S.G.; Attenkofer, K.; Smedley, J.; Kamps, T.; Schmeißer, M.A.H.; Muller, E.M.; Ruiz-Osés, M.; Padmore, H.A.; Wong, J.J.; Xie, J.: Influence of Growth Method on K3Sb Photocathode Structure and Performance. In: Proceedings of IPAC2014, Dresden, Germany. , 2014. - ISBN 978-3-95450-132-8, p. 624-626
Open Access Version

Abstract:
Future high brightness photoelectron sources delivering >100 mA average current call for a new generation of photocathodes. Materials which qualify for this purpose should exhibit low intrinsic emittance, long lifetime and high quantum efficiency at photon energies in the visible range of the spectrum to relax drive laser requirements. A combination of material science techniques are used to determine the influence of the growth parameters on structure and performance of photocathode materials . In-situ XRR, XRD and GiSAXS measurements were performed at the synchrotron radiation sources, NSLS and CHESS. The growth of K3Sb, a precursor material of one of the prime candidates CsK2Sb, was studied intensively to optimize this intermediate growth step in terms of quantum efficiency and roughness. Three methods, a “layer by layer” type and a “super-lattice type” were examined. K3Sb exists in two crystallographic phases, namely cubic and hexagonal. The cubic phase exhibits a higher quantum efficiency at 532 nm than the hexagonal phase and transforms more easily into CsK2Sb, tuning this phase is believed to be one of the key parameters in the CsK2Sb growth.