Schröder, D.; Bender, C.L.; Arlt, T.; Osenberg, M.; Hilger, A.; Risse, S.; Ballauff, M.; Manke, I.; Janek, J.: In operando x-ray tomography for nextgeneration batteries: a systematic approach to monitor reaction product distribution and transport processes. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 49 (2016), p. 1-12
10.1088/0022-3727/49/40/404001

Abstract:
Computed tomography with x-rays is a powerful tool to analyze the complex reaction and transport processes that occur inside electrochemical storage devices. To this day, a better insight into the occurring processes is needed and will yield improvements in energy density and cycling stability of next-generation batteries. Herein we present general considerations for the use of x-ray tomography of batteries to gain a detailed insight during operation. Furthermore, we present examples for the tomography of zinc–oxygen batteries, sodium– oxygen batteries and metal–sulfur batteries, elucidating performance limiting degradation processes such as dendrite formation and loss of liquid electrolyte. With the method applied, we aim to establish an effective link between the battery and x-ray community by offering a guideline on how to apply x-ray tomography to propel research on battery materials and entire batteries.