Yashchuk, V.V.; Artemiev, A.; Centers, G.; Chaubard, A.; Geckeler, R.; Lacey, I.; Marth, H.; McKinney, W.R.; Noll, T.; Siewert, F.; Winter, M.; Zeschke, T.: High precision tilt stage as a key element to a universal test mirror for characterization and calibration of slope measuring instruments. Review of Scientific Instruments 87 (2016), p. 051904/1-12
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The ultimate performance of surface slope metrology instrumentation, such as long trace profilers and auto-collimator based deflectometers, is limited by systematic errors that are increased when the entire angular range is used for metrology of significantly curved optics. At the ALS X-Ray Optics Laboratory, in collaboration with the HZB/BESSY-II and PTB (Germany) metrology teams, we are working on a calibration method for deflectometers, based on a concept of a universal test mirror (UTM) [V. V. Yashchuk et al., Proc. SPIE 6704, 67040A (2007)]. Potentially, the UTM method provides high performance calibration and accounts for peculiarities of the optics under test (e.g., slope distribution) and the experimental arrangement (e.g., the distance between the sensor and the optic under test). At the same time, the UTM calibration method is inherently universal, applicable to a variety of optics and experimental arrangements. In this work, we present the results of tests with a key component of the UTM system, a custom high precision tilt stage, which has been recently developed in collaboration with Physik Instrumente, GmbH. The tests have demonstrated high performance of the stage and its capability (after additional calibration) to provide angular calibration of surface slope measuring profilers over the entire instrumental dynamic range with absolute accuracy better than 30 nrad. The details of the stage design and tests are presented.We also discuss the foundation of the UTM method and calibration algorithm, as well as the possible design of a full scale UTM system.