Abzieher, T.; Moghadamzadeh, S.; Schackmar, F.; Eggers, H.; Sutterlüti, F.; Farooq, A.; Kojda, D.; Habicht, K.; Schmager, R.; Mertens, A.; Azmi, R.; Klohr, L.; Schwenzer, J.A.; Hetterich, M.; Lemmer, U.; Richards, B.S.; Powalla, M.; Paetzold, U.W.: Electron-Beam-Evaporated Nickel Oxide Hole Transport Layers for Perovskite-Based Photovoltaics. Advanced Energy Materials 9 (2019), p. 1802995/1-13
High‐quality charge carrier transport materials are of key importance for stable and efficient perovskite‐based photovoltaics. This work reports on electron‐beam‐evaporated nickel oxide (NiOx) layers, resulting in stable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to 18.5% when integrated into solar cells employing inkjet‐printed perovskite absorbers. By adding oxygen as a process gas and optimizing the layer thickness, transparent and efficient NiOx hole transport layers (HTLs) are fabricated, exhibiting an average absorptance of only 1%. The versatility of the material is demonstrated for different absorber compositions and deposition techniques. As another highlight of this work, all‐evaporated perovskite solar cells employing an inorganic NiOx HTL are presented, achieving stable PCEs of up to 15.4%. Along with good PCEs, devices with electron‐beam‐evaporated NiOx show improved stability under realistic operating conditions with negligible degradation after 40 h of maximum power point tracking at 75 °C. Additionally, a strong improvement in device stability under ultraviolet radiation is found if compared to conventional perovskite solar cell architectures employing other metal oxide charge transport layers (e.g., titanium dioxide). Finally, an all‐evaporated perovskite solar mini‐module with a NiOx HTL is presented, reaching a PCE of 12.4% on an active device area of 2.3 cm2.