Beamline ENERGIZE the photoelectron spectroscopy beamline for energy materials
New research infrastructure for energy materials in energy-efficient technologies
What can you do with the new beamline?
The beamline makes light ranging from vacuum-ultraviolet to soft X-rays available that can be used for carrying out photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the attached instrument platform.
What is new about it?
The intensity of the light directed on the sample being studied can be varied over many orders of magnitude so that even insulating layers can be investigated – which is hardly possible at other synchrotron experimental setups at present.
What is the goal?
The composition and electronic structure of modern energy materials will be investigated to provide important insight into how to utilise these materials for achieving extremely high energy efficiencies in novel electronic devices, such as new types of light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and transistors.
The goal of the ENERGIZE project
The goal of the ENERGIZE project at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin is to accelerate research on modern materials for electronics and optoelectronics through collaboration with the Integrative Research Institute for the Sciences (IRIS) Adlershof of Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (HU) using a facility custom-designed for this purpose. This collaboration will focus especially on types of materials that will facilitate future energy-efficient technologies.
The extremely brilliant light of the BESSY II synchrotron provides the vital tool necessary for this purpose. Together with the ENERGIZE beamline and the instrument platform optimized for electronic materials, it provides scientists with the best access to insight about the electronic properties of complex materials through photoemission spectroscopy. BESSY II offers the highest quality light, particularly in the vacuum-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regime.
As part of the Renewable Energies Division of HZB, the Molecular Systems joint research group will be in charge of ENERGIZE. The scientific subjects that users can address through ENERGIZE is extensive; here a few examples:
- the fundamental electronic structure of new materials, such as perovskites and 2D semiconductors;
- optimization of interfaces in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and photo-electrochemical components for generating storable fuels;
- electronic properties of optoelectronic components printed in normal air.
Project Manager Prof. Norbert Koch (HZB & HU) sees enormous potential for the new ENERGIZE research infrastructure:
"The strategically positioned ENERGIZE project with its investment of more than 1.2 million Euros will strengthen cutting-edge research in Berlin on the one hand, and on the other attract a broad international user group. This will provide the HZB and the collaborating institutions with continuous research stimuli.”
Centrepiece of the new beamline is a dipole PGM (plane-grating monochromator) that facilitates optimal measurements in the energy range of 20–1,500 eV (cf. Fig. 1). This energy range is especially well-suited for photoelectron spectroscopy in the VUV (UPS) and X-ray regime (XPS), as well as for X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Additionally, a specialised setup facilitates studies of samples that are sensitive to radiation by limiting current densities to less than 5 pA/cm².
The Instrument Platform
The ENERGIZE instrument platform is designed for a broad operating range to satisfy the diverse requirements of its users. It offers the opportunity to study samples prepared ex situ using various spectroscopic measurement techniques under ultra-high-vacuum (UPS, XPS, ARPES, and XAS).
In addition, various means are provided for preparation of samples in situ. These include ion-sputtering, sample heating, and deposition of organic and inorganic materials (cf. Fig. 2).
Fig. 2 (© ScientaOmicron): simplified schematic representation of the ENERGIZE instrument platform. A) Analysis chamber, B) Upper preparation chamber, C) Handling chamber, D) & E) Vapor deposition, F) Airlock, G) Sample rack/repository/depot/feed/entry/portal/tray, H) safety interlock, I) hemispherical electron analyzer.