The CISSY integrated system
In the CISSY ultrahigh vacuum system, some of the crucial steps of the preparation of thin film solar cells can be performed in-system, allowing the direct transfer from preparation to the analysis chamber, avoiding contamination. Magnetron sputtering (for transparent window layers or buffer layers) is possible in a separate chamber and various wet chemical treatment or deposition methods are available inside an attached glove box. Evaporation of alkali metals and alkali fluorides are done in another separate chamber. Sample characterization is possible using surface sensitive x-ray and ultraviolet photo electron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS). In addition, surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPV) is available .
 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie. (2016). CISSY: A station for preparation and surface/interface analysis of thin lm materials and devices. Journal of large-scale research facilities, 2, A67. http://dx.doi.org/10.17815/jlsrf-2-84.