• Calnan, S.; Bagacki, R.; Bao, F.; Dorbandt, I.; Kemppainen, E.; Schary, C.; Schlatmann, R.; Leonardi, M.; Lombardo, S.A.; Milazzo, R.G.; Privitera, S.M.S.; Bizzarri, F.; Connelli, C.; Consoli, D.; Gerardi, C.; Zani, P.; Carmo, M.; Haas, S.; Lee, M.; Mueller, M.; Zwaygardt, W.; Oscarsson, J.; Stolt, L.; Edoff, M.; Edvinsson, T.; Pehlivan, I.B.: Development of Various Photovoltaic-Driven Water Electrolysis Technologies for Green Solar Hydrogen Generation. Solar RRL early view (2022), p. 2100479/1- 13

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Direct solar hydrogen generation via a combination of photovoltaics (PV) and water electrolysis can potentially ensure a sustainable energy supply while minimizing greenhouse emissions. The PECSYS project aims at demonstrating a solar-driven electrochemical hydrogen generation system with an area >GREATER-THAN 10m2 with high efficiency and at reasonable cost. Thermally integrated PV electrolyzers (ECs) using thin-film silicon, undoped, and silver-doped Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and silicon heterojunction PV combined with alkaline electrolysis to form one unit are developed on a prototype level with solar collection areas in the range from 64 to 2600 cm2 with the solar-to-hydrogen (StH) efficiency ranging from ALMOST EQUAL TO 4 to 13%. Electrical direct coupling of PV modules to a proton exchange membrane EC to test the effects of bifaciality (730 cm2 solar collection area) and to study the long-term operation under outdoor conditions (10 m2 collection area) is also investigated. In both cases, StH efficiencies exceeding 10% can be maintained over the test periods used. All the StH efficiencies reported are based on measured gas outflow using mass flow meters. GREATER-THAN