• Li, J.; Dagar, J.; Shargaieva, O.; Maus, O.; Remec, M.; Emery, Q.; Khenkin, M.; Ulbrich, C.; Akhundova, F.; Márquez, J.A.; Unold, T.; Fenske, M.; Schultz, C.; Stegemann, B.; Al-Ashouri, A.; Albrecht, S.; Esteves, A.T.; Korte, L.; Köbler, H.; Abate, A.; Többens, D.M.; Zizak, I.; List-Kratochvil, E. J. W.; Schlatmann, R.; Unger, E.: Ink Design Enabling Slot-Die Coated Perovskite Solar Cells with >22% Power Conversion Efficiency, Micro-Modules, and 1 Year of Outdoor Performance Evaluation. Advanced Energy Materials 13 (2023), p. 2203898/1-13

Open Access Version

The next technological step in the exploration of metal-halide perovskite solar cells is the demonstration of larger-area device prototypes under outdoor operating conditions. The authors here demonstrate that when slot-die coating the halide perovskite layers on large areas, ribbing effects may occur but can be prevented by adjusting the precursor ink's rheological properties. For formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) precursor inks based on 2-methoxyethanol, the ink viscosity is adjusted by adding acetonitrile (ACN) as a co-solvent leading to smooth FAPbI3 thin-films with high quality and layer homogeneity. For an optimized content of 46 vol% of the ACN co-solvent, a certified steady-state performance of 22.3% is achieved in p-i-n FAPbI3-perovskite solar cells. Scaling devices to larger areas by making laser series-interconnected mini-modules of 12.7 cm2, a power conversion efficiency of 17.1% is demonstrated. A full year of outdoor stability testing with continuous maximum power point tracking on encapsulated devices is performed and it is demonstrated that these devices maintain close to 100% of their initial performance during winter and spring followed by a significant performance decline during warmer summer months. This work highlights the importance of the real-condition evaluation of larger area device prototypes to validate the technological potential of halide perovskite photovoltaics.