Streeck, C.; Brunken, S.; Gerlach, M.; Herzog, C.; Hönicke, P.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Lubeck, J.; Pollakowski, B.; Unterumsberger, R.; Weber, A.; Beckhoff, B.; Kanngießer, B.; Schock, H.-W.; Mainz, R.: Grazing-incidence x-ray fluorescence analysis for non-destructive determination of In and Ga depth profiles in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber films. Applied Physics Letters 103 (2013), p. 113904/1-5
Open Accesn Version

Development of highly efficient thin film solar cells involves band gap engineering by tuning their elemental composition with depth. Here we show that grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and well-characterized instrumentation is suitable for a non-destructive and reference-free analysis of compositional depth profiles in thin films. Variation of the incidence angle provides quantitative access to the in-depth distribution of the elements, which are retrieved from measured fluorescence intensities by modeling parameterized gradients and fitting calculated to measured fluorescence intensities. Our results show that double Ga gradients in Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 can be resolved by GIXRF.