• Wolff, N.; Klimm, D.; Habicht, K.; Fritsch, K.: Crystal growth and thermodynamic investigations of Bi2M2+O4 (M = Pd, Cu). CrystEngComm 23 (2021), p. 3230-3238

Open Access Version

Phase equilibria that are relevant for the growth of Bi2MO4 have been studied experimentally, and the ternary phase diagrams of Bi2O3–PdO2–Pd and Bi2O3–Cu2O–CuO and its isopleth section Bi2O3–CuO were redetermined. It is shown that every melting and crystallization process is always accompanied by a redox process at the phase boundary and that for both title compounds, the valence of the transition metal is lowered during melting. Vice versa, during crystal growth, O2 must be transported through the melt to the phase boundary. Based on these new insights provided by our thermodynamic studies, Bi2CuO4 single crystals with a length of up to 7 cm and a diameter of 6 mm were grown by the OFZ technique to be used for investigations of magnetic, electronic and thermal transport properties. The grown crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Laue, magnetization and specific heat measurements.