Köszegi, J.-M.; Kugeler, O.; Knobloch, J.: High-Q Operation of SRF Cavities: The Impact of Thermocurrents on the RF Surface Resistance. In: SRF2015 - Proceedings, Whistler, BC, Canada. , 2015. - ISBN 978-3-95450-178-6, p. MOBA04/1-4
http://srf2015proc.triumf.ca/prepress/papers/moba04.pdf
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Abstract:
We present a study concerning the operation of a superconducting RF cavity (non-doped niobium) in horizontal testing with the focus on understanding the thermoelectrically induced contribution to the surface resistance. Starting in 2009, we suggested a means of reducing the residual resistance by warming up a cavity after initial cooldown to about 20 K and cooling it down again [1]. In subsequent studies we used this technique to manipulate the residual resistance by more than a factor of 2 [2]. We postulated that thermocurrents during cooldown generate additional trapped magnetic flux that impacts the cavity quality factor. Since several questions remained open, we present here a more extensive study including measurement of two additional passband modes of the 9- cell cavity that confirms the effect. We also discuss simulations that substantiate the claim. While the layout of the cavity LHe tank system is cylindrically symmetric, we show that the temperature dependence of the material parameters result in a non-symmetric current distribution. Hence a significant amount of magnetic flux can be generated at the RF surface resulting in an increased surface resistance [3].