Agostini, P.; Barbieri, G.; Coppola, R.; Moncada, M.; Ohms, C.; Wimpory, R.C.: Stress Distributions in P91 Martensitic Steel and in AISI 316LN Steel Welds for Gen IV Nuclear Applications. Journal of Surface Investigation 14 (2020), p. S25-S30
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Neutron diffraction has been used to investigate the stress field in two different welds developed for nuclear applications, namely those obtained by tungsten inert gas welding of P91 martensitic steel (Cr 9, Mn 6, Mo 1, C 0.1, and Fe bal wt %) and hybrid (laser beam and gas metal arc) welding of AISI316LN austenitic steel (17.8 Cr, 12.3 Ni, 1.7 Mn, 2.4 Mo, 0.3 Si, and Fe bal wt %). The sizes of the investigated samples were 100 × 50 × 12 mm for the P91 weld and 220 × 160 × 15 mm for the 316LN weld; unstrained references were prepared for both welds. The neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out utilizing the E3 diffractometer at the BER II reactor in Berlin, with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 2 mm3. Lines perpendicular to the weld direction were scanned at different depths inside the material and at different distances from the weld centerline, including the heat affected zone and the weld centerline. Strain and stress values were determined in the three principal directions. In the TIG P91 weld, the stresses are almost completely relieved after a post weld heat treatment for 2 h at 760°C. In the laser beam and gas metal arc 316LN weld not submitted to post weld heat treatment, nearly balancing longitudinal and transverse stress components as high as 300–350 MPa are found within a range of approximately 3 mm around the centerline of weld.