Menzel, D.; Tejada, A.; Al-Ashouri, A.; Levine, I.; Guerra, J.A.; Rech, B.; Albrecht, S.; Korte, L.: Revisiting the Determination of the Valence Band Maximum and Defect Formation in Halide Perovskites for Solar Cells: Insights from Highly Sensitive Near UV Photoemission Spectroscopy. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 13 (2021), p. 43540-43553
10.1021/acsami.1c10171
Open Accesn Version (available 01.09.2022)

Abstract:
Using advanced near-UV photoemission spectroscopy (PES) in constant final state mode (CFSYS) with very high dynamic range, we investigate the triple-cation lead halide perovskite Cs0.05(MA0.17FA0.83)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3 and gain detailed insights into the density of occupied states (DOS) in the valence band and band gap. A valence band model is established which includes the parabolic valence band edge and an exponentially decaying band tail in a single equation. This allows to precisely determine two valence band maxima (VBM) at different k-vectors in the angle-integrated spectra, where the highest one, resulting from the VBM at the R-point in the Brillouin zone, is found between – 1.50 eV to - 1.37 eV relative to the Fermi energy EF. We investigate quantitatively the formation of defect states in the band gap up to EF upon decomposition of the perovskites during sample transfer, storage, and measurements: During near-UV based PES, the density of defect states saturates at a value that is around four orders of magnitude below the density of states at the valence band edge. However, even short air exposure, or 3h of X-ray illumination, increased their density by almost a factor of six and ~ 40, respectively. Upon prolonged storage in vacuum, the formation of a distinct defect peak is observed. Thus, near-UV CFSYS with modelling as shown here is demonstrated as a powerful tool to characterize the valence band and quantify defect states in lead halide perovskites.