Riechardt, A.I.; Cordini, D.; Willerding, G.; Georgieva, I.; Weber, A.; Seibel, I.; Lakotka, N.; Bechrakis, N.E.; Foerster, M.H.; Moser, L.; Joussen, A.M.: Proton beam therapy of parapapillary choroidal melanoma. American Journal of Ophthalmology 157 (2014), p. 1258–1265

Purpose To analyze the functional outcome with regard to the development of visual acuity and radiation-induced optic neuropathy of patients with parapapillary choroidal melanoma treated with proton beam therapy. Design Clinical case series, retrospective study. Methods We evaluated 147 consecutive patients with parapapillary choroidal melanoma who received proton beam therapy as primary tumor treatment at the Helmholtz Center in Berlin from 1998 to 2005. A cumulative dose of 60 Cobalt Gray Equivalents (CGE) was delivered to the tumor and the optic disc received a minimum of 50 CGE. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess ocular outcome and survival rates. For trend analysis of functional development, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the medians of 2 groups and Kruskal-Wallis test was used in the case of more than 2 groups. Results The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (range 0.3-11.7 years). The most common side effects were radiation-induced optic neuropathy, retinopathy, and cataract. The median visual acuity before and within the first year after therapy was 0.4 logMAR (20/50), lapsing to 1.3 logMAR (20/400) after 3 years and 1.4 logMAR (20/500) after 5 years. During follow-up, no light perception developed in 17 cases (11.6%), mostly attributed to radiation-induced retinopathy, optic neuropathy, and secondary glaucoma. Enucleation was carried out in 14 patients (9.5%) because of local recurrence or severe side effects. Conclusion Radiation-induced optic neuropathy is an expected issue after proton beam therapy of parapapillary choroidal melanoma, and visual impairment is common during long-term follow-up, but some useful vision can be preserved in a considerable number of patients. Inquiries to Aline I. Riechardt, Augenklinik/Department of Ophthalmology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin, Germany