Michels, R.; Goerigk, G.; Vainio, U.; Gummel, J.; Huber, K.: Coaggregation of Two Anionic Azo Dyestuffs: A Combined Static Light Scattering and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 118 (2014), p. 7618-7629
10.1021/jp502347b

Abstract:
The formation of azo dyestuff aggregates in dilute aqueous solution induced by the addition of Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, or Ba2+ ions is followed by time-resolved static light scattering (SLS) and time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Timedependent molar mass data of the growing aggregates is interpreted by means of a kinetic model introduced by Lomakin et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996, 93, 1125) for the description of β-amyloid aggregation. This interpretation reveals significant trends within the homologous series of alkaline earth cations. The trends refer to the nucleation and the growth rate of the dyestuff fibers. Time-resolved SAXS experiments indicate that these first two stages are followed by a third one during which a network forms by partial lateral alignment of fibers. At high enough dyestuff concentrations, this network formation even leads to a gel-like phase. Anomalous SAXS (ASAXS) on such a gel phase formed upon the addition of Sr2+ revealed the extent of neutralization of the dyestuff molecules within the gel by the specifically interacting alkaline earth cations.