Lang, F.; Shargaieva, O.; Brus, V.; Neitzert, H.C.; Rappich, J.; Nickel, N.H.: Influence of Radiation on the Properties and the Stability of Hybrid Perovskites. Advanced Materials 30 (2018), p. 1702905/1-22
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Organic-inorganic perovskites are well suited for optoelectronic applications. In particular, perovskite single and perovskite tandem solar cells with silicon are close to their market entry. Despite their swift rise in efficiency to more than 21 %, solar cell lifetimes are way below the needed 25 years. In fact, comparison of the time when the device performance has degraded to 80 % of its initial value (T80 lifetime) of numerous solar cells throughout literature reveals a strongly reduced stability under illumination. The various detrimental effects are discussed. Most notably, moisture and heat related degradation can be mitigated easily by now. Recently however, several photo-induced degradation mechanisms have been observed. Under illumination alloyed perovskites tend to phase segregate, while further, oxygen catalyzes deprotonation of the organic cations. Additionally, during illumination photo-generated charge can be trapped in the N-H antibonding orbitals causing the dissociation of the organic cation. On the other hand, organic-inorganic perovskites exhibit a high radiation hardness that is superior to crystalline silicon. This progress report thoroughly reviews proposed degradation mechanisms reported in literature and discusses the microscopic mechanisms and their implications for solar cells.