Kazandjian, S.; Rist, J.; Weller, M.; Wiegandt, F.; Aslitürk, D.; Grundmann, S.; Kircher, M.; Nalin, G.; Pitters, D.; Vela Pérez, I.; Waitz, M.; Schiwietz, G.; Grin, B.; Williams, J.B.; Dörner, R.; Schöffler, M.; Miteva, T.; Trinter, F.; Jahnke, T.; Sisourat, N.: Frustrated Coulomb Explosion of small Helium clusters. Physical Review A 98 (2019), p. 050701(R)/1-5
10.1103/PhysRevA.98.050701

Abstract:
Almost 10 years ago, energetic neutral hydrogen atoms were detected after a strong-field double ionization of H-2. This process, called "frustrated tunneling ionization," occurs when an ionized electron is recaptured after being driven back to its parent ion by the electric field of a femtosecond laser. In the present study we demonstrate that a related process naturally occurs in clusters without the need of an external field: we observe a charge hopping that occurs during a Coulomb explosion of a small helium cluster, which leads to an energetic neutral helium atom. This claim is supported by theoretical evidence. As an analog to frustrated tunneling ionization, we term this process "frustrated Coulomb explosion."