Selected Publications


  • Jost, M.; Bertram, T.; Koushik, D.; Marquez, J.; Verheijen, M.; Heinemann, M.D.; Köhnen, E.; Al-Ashouri, A.; Braunger, S.; Lang, F.; Rech, B.; Unold, T.; Creatore, M.; Lauermann, I.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Schlatmann, R.; Albrecht, S.: 21.6%-efficient Monolithic Perovskite/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Tandem Solar Cells with Thin Conformal Hole Transport Layers for Integration on Rough Bottom Cell Surfaces. ACS Energy Letters 4 (2019), p. 583-590


  • Abou-Ras, D.; Bär, M.; Caballero, R.; Gunder, R.; Hages, C.; Heinemann, M.D.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Krause, M.; Levcenco, S.; Mainz, R.; Márquez, J.; Nikolaeva, A.; Redinger, A.; Schäfer, N.; Schorr, S.; Stange, H.; Unold, T.; Wilks, R.G.: Advanced characterization and in-situ growth monitoring of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and solar cells. Solar Energy 170 (2018), p. 102-112

  • Bertram, T.; Lauche, J.; Kodalle, T.; Yetkin, H.A.; Heinemann, M.D.; Schlatmann, R.; Kaufmann, C.A.: RbF-PDT induced sodium displacement in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 absorbers grown under high substrate temperatures. In: 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC). IEEE, 2018. - ISBN 978-1-5386-8529-7, p. 0109-0113

  • Kodalle, T.; Heinemann, M.D.; Greiner, D.; Yetkin, H.A.; Klupsch, M.; Li, C.; Aken, P.A. van; Lauermann, I.; Schlatmann, R.; Kaufmann, C.A.: Elucidating the Mechanism of an RbF Post Deposition Treatment in CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells. Solar RRL 2 (2018), p. 1800156/1-9

  • Maticiuc, N.; Kodalle, T.; Lauche, J.; Wenisch, R.; Bertram, T.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Lauermann, I.: In vacuo XPS investigation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 surface after RbF post-deposition treatment. Thin Solid Films 665 (2018), p. 143-147

  • Schnohr, C.S.; Ecknera, S.; Schöppe, P.; Haubold, E.; d’Acapito, F.; Greiner, D.; Kaufmann, Ch.A.: Reversible correlation between subnanoscale structure and Cu content inco-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin fims. Acta Materialia 153 (2018), p. 8-14


  • Schmidt, S.S.; Wolf, C.; Rodriguez-Alvarez, H.; Bäcker, J.-P.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Merdes, S.; Ziem, F.; Hartig, M.; Cinque, S.; Dorbandt, I.; Köble, C.; Abou-Ras, D.; Mainz, R.; Schlatmann, R.: Adjusting the Ga grading during fast atmospheric processing of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell absorber layers using elemental selenium vapor. Progress in Photovoltaics 25 (2017), p. 341-357


  • Greiner, D.; Lauche, J.; Heinemann, M.D.; Hinrichs, V.; Stange, H.; Allaf Navirian, H.; Kalus, C.; Schlatmann, R.; Kaufmann, C.A.: Influence of Residual Gas Composition and Background Pressure in a Multi-Stage Co-evaporation Chamber on the Quality of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films and Their Device Performance. In: 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) . IEEE, 2016. - ISBN 978-1-5090-2724-8 , p. 1151 - 1156

  • Mainz, R.; Sanli, E.S.; Stange, H.; Azulay, D.; Brunken, S.; Greiner, D.; Hajaj, S.; Heinemann, M.D.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Klaus, M.; Ramasse, Q.M.; Rodriguez Alvarez, H.; Weber, A.; Balberg, I.; Millo, O.; van Aken, P.A.; Abou-Ras, D.: Annihilation of structural defects in chalcogenide absorber films for high-efficiency solar cells. Energy & Environmental Science 9 (2016), p. 1818-1827

  • Stephan, C.; Greiner, D.; Schorr, S.; Kaufmann, C.A.: The influence of sodium on the point defect characteristics in off stoichiometric CuInSe2. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 98 (2016), p. 309-315


  • Heinemann, M.D.; Efimova, V.; Klenk, R.; Hoepfner, B.; Wollgarten, M.; Unold, T.; Schock, H.-W.; Kaufmann, C.: Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Superstrate Solar Cells: Prospects and Limitations. Progress in Photovoltaics 23 (2015), p. 1228–1237

  • Stange, H.; Brunken, S.; Hempel, H.; Rodriguez Alvarez, H.; Schäfer, N.; Greiner, D.; Scheu, A.; Lauche, J.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Unold, T.; Abou-Ras, D.; Mainz, R.: Effect of Na presence during CuInSe2 growth on stacking fault annihilation and electronic properties. Applied Physics Letters 107 (2015), p. 152103/1-5


  • Kaufmann, C.A.; Greiner, D.; Harndt, S.; Klenk, R.; Brunken, S.; Schlatmann, R.; Nichterwitz, M.; Schock, H.-W.; Unold, T.; Zajac, K.; Brunner, S.; Daume, F.; Scheit, C.; Puttnins, S.; Braun, A.; Rahm, A.; Wuerz, R.; Kessler, F.; Guenthner, M.; Pscherer, M.; Ihlow, S.; Motz, G.; Morgner, H.; G., R.; Lambrecht, A.; T., J.; Spietz, P.; Schülke, P.: FLEXIBLE Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS - RECENT RESULTS FROM A GERMAN JOINT PROJECT (PIPV2). In: T. P. Bokhoven ... [Ed.] : 29th European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition : proceedings of the international conference held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22 - 26 September 2014. München: WIP, 2014. - ISBN 3-936338-34-5, p. 1439 - 1443

  • Klenk, R.; Steigert, A.; Rissom, T.; Greiner, D.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Unold, T.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.: Junction formation by Zn(O,S) sputtering yields CIGSe-based cells with efficiencies exceeding 18%. Progress in Photovoltaics 22 (2014), p. 161-165

  • Mönig, H.; Lockhorn, D.; Aghdassi, N.; Timmer, A.; Kaufmann, C.; Caballero, R.; Zacharias, H.; Fuchs, H.: Heat Induced Passivation of CuInSe2 Surfaces: A Strategy to Optimize the Efficiency of Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells? Advanced Materials Interfaces 1 (2014), p. 1300040/1-7


  • Kaufmann, C.A.; Greiner, D.; Rodriguez-Alvarez, H.; Weber, A.; Heinemann, M.D.; Lauche, J.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, C.; Schock, H.W.; Mainz, R.: Co-evaporation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 at Low Temperatures: an In-Situ X-Ray Growth Analysis. In: 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2013. IEEE, 2013. - ISBN 978-1-4799-3299-3, p. 3058-3061

  • Rodriguez-Alvarez, H.; Weber, A.; Lauche, J.; Kaufmann, Ch.A.; Rissom, T.; Greiner, D.; Klaus, M.; Unold, Th.; Genzel, C.; Schock, H.-W.; Mainz, R.: Formation of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 thin films deposited by three-stage thermal co-evaporation: a real-time x-ray diffraction and fluorescence study. Advanced Energy Materials 3 (2013), p. 1381-1387


  • Caballero, R.; Izquierdo-Roca, V.; Fontané, X.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Àlvarez-García, J.; Eicke, A.; Calvo-Barrio, L.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; Schock, H.W.; Morante, J.R.: Cu deficiency in multi-stage co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 for solar cells applications: Microstructure and Ga in-depth alloying. Acta Materialia 58 (2010), p. 3468-3476