Meadows, H.J.; Bhatia, A.; Stefan, C.; Schorr, S.; Scapulla, M.A.; Dale, P.J.: Crystallographic study of phases present in CuInSe2 absorber layers produced by laser annealing co-electrodeposited precursors. In: Eldada, L.a. [u.a.] [Eds.] : Thin film solar technology V : 25 - 26 August 2013, San Diego, California, United States. Bellingham, Wash.: SPIE , 2013 (Proceedings of SPIE ; 8823). - ISBN 978-0-8194-9673, p. 882302/1-9
For the production of high efficiency thin film, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, absorber layers with grain sizes of a few hundred nanometers and without detrimental secondary phases are favored. Co-electrodeposition offers a low-cost and material efficient synthesis route, where, in a single step, films containing CuInSe2 are formed. However, the material is nanocrystalline, constitutes multiple phases and has poor photovoltaic properties. Therefore a subsequent annealing step is required to produce absorber layers suitable for use in photovoltaic devices. Laser annealing has been demonstrated to improve crystallinity, stimulate atomic diffusion and develop opto-electronic properties when compared to the precursor. In this work, high resolution X-ray diffraction was used in order to assess the presence of secondary phases in the absorber layer. All diffractograms of laser annealed films exhibited an additional, unknown peak, measurable through the full depth of the material which is independent of precursor composition, annealing time or laser flux. Evaluation of literature on codeposited CuInSe2, combined with Rietveld refinement suggests a number of possible identities for this peak. The candidates in order of most likely to least likely are structural defects, In2Se3, and CuIn3Se5. We consider the impact that each of these would have on a device formed via this process and thus its success as a new manufacturing route for CuInSe2 solar cells.