High Kinetic Energy Photoelectron Spectroscopy

The High Kinetic Energy Photoelectron Spectrometer (HIKE) endstation is designed for hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) experiments using a photon excitation energy range of 2 keV to 12 keV, leading to an optimized photoelectron kinetic energy range from 150 eV to 10 keV. As HAXPES probes beyond a sample’s surface and toward its bulk - including buried interfaces, its increased probing depth allows for the execution of in-situ experiments mimicking conditions of treatment steps employed in the preparation of “real-world” devices such as solar cells, batteries, etc.

  • extended depth profiling of composition and chemical information
  • characterization of buried interface chemical and electronic structures
  • in-situ and in-system HAXPES studies, e.g., diffusion, order disorder transitions
  • operando XAS experiments
  • standing waves enhanced HAXPES



Remote access

depends on experiment - please discuss with Instrument Scientist

Beamline data
Energy range Si(111):2 - 12 keV; Si(311): 4 - 12 keV; Si(422): 6 - 12 keV
Energy resolution 1000 at 4 keV
Flux 1e11 at 4 keV
Polarisation horizontal
Focus size (hor. x vert.) 0.4 x 0.6 mm
Phone +49 30 8062 14838
Weitere Details KMC-1
Station data
Temperature range tested: 71 K to 1023 K
Pressure range 5 x 10-9 mbar to 5 x 10-7 mbar
Detector VG Scienta R4000 electron analyzer up to 10 keV, Bruker XFlash ® 4010 fluorescence detector
Manipulators VG Scienta He cryostat with 5 degrees of freedom - 4 motorized
Sample holder compatibility Omicron type
Additional equipment • Sputter gun (Argon gas)
• Charge compensation flood gun (energies up to 300 eV)
• X-ray Focussing: Glass Capillary X-ray Optics: parabolic x-ray mono-capillary (IfG GmbH) Beam properties @ experiment:
Focus: 100 microns x 50 microns;
Flux density gain: x15;
HIKE overall signal gain: x5
Manipulator motorization Axis X, Y, Z, Polar - Labview controlled

The HIKE Spectrometer

The HIKE endstation has been set-up in late 2005 and begun user operation in 2006. The system is designed for HAXPES experiments using a photon excitation energy range from 2 keV to 12 keV with an optimized available photoelectron kinetic energy range from 150 eV to 10 keV.

While soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, e.g. ESCA, is one of the most important spectroscopic tools of today due to its surface sensitivity, HAXPES goes beyond the surface and probes the bulk properties of materials. The technique's lower sensitivity to surface effects and contaminants allows the study of samples without particular surface treatments such as prototype systems for applications in magnetic memories, solar cells, batteries, etc.

The HIKE endstation is installed at the KMC-1 beamline. Typical experiments running on the HIKE endstation are investigations of bulk samples, multilayers and heterostructures where core levels and valence band are recorded, buried interfaces are accessed and spatially resolved chemical information by x-ray standing waves is recorded. In addition to HAXPES experiments the station also provides parallel access to the sample drain current (TEY) and the signal from a fluorescence detector (FY) thus enabling absorption experiments: XANES and EXAFS.

Selected Publications

A. Siebert, X. Dou, R. Garcia-Diez, D. Buchholz, R. Félix, E. Handick, G. Greco, I. Hasa, R. G. Wilks, S. Passerini, and M. Bär, "Monitoring the sodiation mechanism of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles-based electrodes for sodium-ion batteries by operando XANES measurements", ACS Applied Energy Materials 4 (2021) 164.

S. Siebentritt, E. Avancini, M. Bär, J. Bombsch, E. Bourgeois, S. Buecheler, R. Carron, C. Castro, S. Duguay, R. Félix, E. Handick, D. Hariskos, V. Havu, P. Jackson, H.-P. Komsa, T. Kunze, M. Malitckaya, M. Menozzi, M. Nesladek, N. Nicoara, M. Puska, M. Raghuwanshi, P. Pareige, S. Sadewasser, G. Sozzi, A. N. Tiwari, S. Ueda, A. Vilalta-Clemente, T. P. Weiss, F. Werner, R. G. Wilks, W. Witte, and M. H. Wolter, "Heavy Alkali Treatment of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells: Surface versus Bulk Effects", Advanced Energy Materials 10 (2020) 1903752.

N. Phung, R. Félix, D. Meggiolaro, A. Al-Ashouri, G. Sousa e Silva, C. Hartmann, J. Hidalgo, H. Köbler, E. Mosconi, B. Lai, R. Gunder, M. Li, K.-L. Wang, Z.-K. Wang, K. Nie, E. Handick, R. G. Wilks, J. A. Marquez, B. Rech, T. Unold, J.-P. Correa-Baena, S. Albrecht, F. De Angelis, M. Bär, and A. Abate, "The Doping Mechanism of Halide Perovskite unveiled by Alkaline Earth Metals", Journal of the American Chemical Society 142 (2020) 2364.