Liquid Jet Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy

The experimental station SOL³PES is a state-of-the-art experimental setup to study solid, solution and solar-cell systems by soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is equipped with a high-transmission hemispherical HIPP-2 R4000 ScientaOmicron electron analyzer for detecting electrons emitted from small molecular aggregates, nanoparticles, or biochemical molecules and their components in (aqueous) solutions, either in vacuum or in an ambient pressure environment.

Selected Applications:
  • Investigating the metal-oxide nanoparticles / (bulk) water interface by liquid microjet PES and NAP-XPS
  • Operando resonant XPS investigation of the metal oxide / electrolyte interface using micro-electrochemical flowcells.
  • Operando transmission investigations of thin-film batteries
  • (Resonant) XPS measurements of the liquid-vapor interface and of the solute-solvent interactions investigated by the liquid microjet and flatjet technique; measurements of dissociation constants and redox properties of uncommon and textbook ions in water beyond the Debye-Hückel limit
  • Cryo-liquid photoelectron spectroscopy




Remote access

depends on experiment - please discuss with Instrument Scientist

Station data
Temperature range -196 °C ... +200 °C
Pressure range Working atmosphere: 10-5 - 10 mbar
Detector Ambient-Pressure HIPP-2 R4000 ScientaOmicron Electron Analyzer
Manipulators flexible (for liquid-microjets, and for solid samples)
Sample holder compatibility liquid microjets: temperature controlled (-20...+95 °C), xyz-axis adjustable, micrometer-precision

solid samples/films: temperature controlled (-196...+200 °C), z-axis adjustable, 45° angle mounting (between X-ray and detector)
Additional equipment

In addition to conventional energy-resolved electron detection, SOL3 enables detection of electron angular distributions by the combination of a ±11° acceptance angle of the electron analyzer and a rotation of the analyzer in the polarization plane of the incoming synchrotron-light beam.