BAMline Imaging

Nondestructive testing in material science

The first hard X-ray beamline at BESSY II has been installed by BAM and PTB at a superconducting 7 T wavelength shifter. The main optical elements of the beamline are a double-multilayer monochromator and a double-crystal monochromator. Depending on the application, the two devices are used separately or in-line. The main imaging applications with photon energies from 8 to 60 keV are X-ray micro computed tomography as well as X-ray refraction radiography and tomography.

Selected Applications:
  • Crack formation under loading in AM materials/parts
  • Phase transition in alloys at elevated temperatures
  • Media distribution in operated fuel cells and electrolyzers
  • Degradation phenomena in operated Li-Ion batteries


X-ray Refraction Radiography, X-ray Refraction Tomography, X-ray Tomography

Remote access

depends on experiment - please discuss with Instrument Scientist

Beamline data
Energy range 4.5 keV - 60 keV
Energy resolution
  • DCM: ~0.01%,
  • DMM: ~1.5%, ~4%, pink beam
  • DCM (Si111): 5.5E+8 @14 keV, 3.5E+8 @30 keV;
  • DMM: 8.0E+10 @20 keV, 4.0E+10 @40 keV;
units: s^-1 x mm^-2
Polarisation horizontal
Focus size (hor. x vert.) DMM: vert. 0.15 mm between 35 m and 45 m from source; DCM: hor. 0.25 mm at 37 m from source
Phone +49 30 8104 5576
More details BAMline
Station data
Temperature range room temperature - 1100°C
Pressure range Vacuum (~1 mbar) - ambient
  • CCD (PCO.1600, 1600 x 1200),
  • sCMOS (PCO edge.5.5 2560 x 2160)
  • Rotation stages: Micos UPR160A, Huber 410
  • Linear stages: Micos UPM160, Micronix ppx-32
  • Huber 6-circle goniometer
  • Huber 2-circle segment 5203.20
  • + several others
Sample holder compatibility Centered M4 thread/screw (M5, M6 possible)
Additional equipment On request
  • Anton Paar oven DHS1100 (TCU200)
  • Deben 5kN load frame (tension/compression)
  • Kammrath&Weiss 5kN MZ0-0 (tension/compression)
  • Cycler (Gamry 1010E)

The BAMline is specialized for nondestructive material characterization using different methods. Depending on the requirements the used beam size varies between 1.5 and 10000µm.

Following methods are available:

1) Computed Tomography (SXCT) can be performed using a DMM with W/Si layers in monochromatic mode (~3.5% dE/E, typically between 8 and 60 keV) or with a single Pd-layer in pink beam mode. It can be chosen to do stepping scans or on-the-fly scans for faster acquisition times (sCMOS-camera). A set of four lenses and thus field of views can be chosen to adapt to different sized samples. 

Lens       field of view        pixel size 

2x           9.2 x 7.8 mm,        3.6 µm 

5x           3.7 x 3.1 mm,         1.44 µm 

10x         1.8 x 1.5 mm,         0.72 µm 

20x         0.92 x 0.78 mm,     0.36 µm 

The Rotation stage (Micos UPR160A) is equipped with a XY piezo stage for sample positioning as well as an electric slip ring feeding 8 channels (up to 1A each) through the stage onto the rotating top. Alternatively, a Huber 410 rotation stage is available for larger loads. 

2) X-ray refraction radiography (SXRR) and tomography (SXRCT) is performed with the DCM (with Si(111) crystals, dE/E = ~0.2%, typically between 8 and 50 keV). For radiation divergence analysis, a Si(111) crystal is used between the sample and the detector system. The nominal pixel size is 4 µm x 4 µm. The field of view is approximately 7 mm (hor.) x 6 mm (ver.) @ 20 keV.

A turntable (Micos UPR160A) with an XY piezo stage is available for sample positioning.
For larger loads, a Huber 410 turntable can be used as an alternative.

3) Optical microscope is available for alignment purposes. The microscopy images can be saved at every measurement coordinate, so that the correlation between the measured data and the microscopy is rather simple.


Sample environments:

Different scanning environments for different sample sizes (from several micrometer to 150mm) are available at the beamline. Rotational units are available as well.

There is no vacuum environment available at the beamline, but it is possible to mount sample environments or reactors in the experimental hutch. 

Temperature in experimental hutch is controlled.


For more information, please contact (SXCT) or (SXRR/SXRCT).