Method: Photoelectron Emission

Photoelectron emission is accomplished by irradiating a sample with monochromatic VUV or X-ray radiation and analyzing the photoelectrons emitted. It is applied to study the electronic structure of molecules, clusters, thin films and solid surfaces. Also liquid samples have become accessible in the recent decade by applying the liquid microjet technique.

Please find below a list of photoelectron techniques used at BESSY II. Select one technique to get to a list of BESSY II instruments that employ it.
Acronnym Long name
ARPES Angular-resolved Photoelectron Emission Spectroscopy
HAXPES Hard X-ray Photoelectron Emission Spectroscopy
NAP-XPS Near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Spin-resovled PES Spin-resovled Photoelectron Emission Spectroscopy
UPS UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy
XPS X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
XPD X-ray Photoelectron Diffraction
Time-resolved PES Time-resolved Photoelectron Emission Spectroscopy