New cavities successfully installed
At the heart of BESSY II are four cavities, hollow resonators, providing the energy that electrons in the storage ring re-absorb after they have released it as light packets. The old cavities were still from the 1970s and were employed at DESY in Hamburg, then at BESSY I, and finally at BESSY II beginning in 1998. “However, the limit of their operating life has been reached”, says Dr. Wolfgang Anders from the HZB Institute of SRF – Science and Technology. Anders, an expert in the field, was responsible for replacing two of the four old cavities with new units during the summer shutdown.
The new cavities have been developed as an EU Project under the supervision of HZB. They are constructed of copper, as before, but have a somewhat more complex shape that is optimised to effectively avoid exciting undesirable oscillations, known as “higher-order modes”. These higher modes are excited by high beam energies and can lead to instabilities.
“The new cavities are significantly more robust and can store up to 80 kilowatts – twice as much as the old cavities. As a result, the requirements for cooling have increased as well”, explains Anders, pointing out the multitude of coolant pipes around the new cavities.
The beam energy at BESSY II is presently still restricted because the vacuum in the new cavities is still improving slowly. “We will be normalising the vacuum conditions over Christmas so that we can operate BESSY II at full beam energy afterwards”, says Anders.
Both of the other old cavities will be replaced during the 2015 summer shutdown so that all the advantages of the new cavities can come into play.