Grossberg, M.; Krustok, J.; Hages, C.J.; Bishop, D.M.; Gunawan, O.; Scheer, R.; Lyam, S.M.; Hempel, H.; Levcenco, S.; Unold, T.: The electrical and optical properties of kesterites. JPhys Energy 1 (2019), p. 044002/1-16
Open Accesn Version
Kesterite Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) semiconductor materials have been extensively studied over the past decade, however despite signiﬁcant efforts, the open circuit voltage remains below 60% of the theoretical maximum. Understanding the optical and electrical properties is critical to explaining and solving the voltage deﬁcit. This review aims to summarize the present knowledge of optical and electrical properties of kesterites and speciﬁcally focuses on experimental data of intrinsic defects, charge carrier density and transport, and minority carrier life time and related rate-limiting recombination mechanisms. It concludes with suggestions for further investigation of the electrical and optical properties of kesterite materials.