Bedoya-Pinto, A.; Ji, J.R.; Pandeya, A.K.; Gargiani, P.; Valvidares, M.; Sessi, P.; Taylor, J.M.; Radu, F.; Chang, K.; Parkin, S.S.P.: Intrinsic 2D-XY ferromagnetism in a van der Waals monolayer. Science 374 (2021), p. 616-620
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The recent discovery of magnetism in two-dimensional (2D) materials has inspired efforts to understand its nature. Whereas the magnetism of monolayers of chromium iodide (CrI3) can be understood in terms of out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy, the related material chromium chloride (CrCl3) has spins that lie in the plane. Bedoya-Pinto et al. used molecular beam epitaxy to grow monolayers of CrCl3 on graphene and studied its magnetic properties. Using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, the authors found that monolayer CrCl3 is a ferromagnet, unlike bulk CrCl3, which is antiferromagnetic. The scaling of the signal in the critical region indicated that the material belongs to the 2D-XY universality class, distinct from Ising magnetism, which some other 2D magnets exhibit.