Behrends, J.; Schnegg, A.; Lips, K.; Thomsen, E.A.; Pandey, A.K.; Samuel, I.D.W.; Keeble, D.J.: Bipolaron formation in organic solar cells observed by pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), p. 176601/1-4
10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.176601

Abstract:
We report the observation of a spin-dependent dark transport current, exhibiting spin coherence at room temperature, in a pi-conjugated polymer-fullerene blend using pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance. The resonance at g = 2.0028 is due to polarons in the polymer, and exhibits spin locking at high microwave fields. The presence of an excess of fullerene, and the operating voltage (1 V) used, suppresses negative polaron formation in the polymer. It is concluded that spin-dependent transport is due to the formation of positive bipolarons.