Just, J.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Müller, O.; Frahm, R.; Unold, T.: Depth distribution of secondary phases in kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 by angle-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy. APL Materials 5 (2017), p. 126106/1-7
10.1063/1.5000306
Open Access version by external provider

Abstract:
The depth distribution of secondary phases in the solar cell absorber material Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is quantitatively investigated using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis at the K-edge of sulfur at varying incidence angles. Vary- ing information depths from several nanometers up to the full thickness is achieved. A quantitative profile of the phase distribution is obtained by a self-consistent fit of a multilayer model to the XANES spectra for different angles. Single step co- evaporated CZTS thin-films are found to exhibit zinc and copper sulfide secondary phases preferentially at the front or back interfaces of the film.