Stegemann, B.; Balamou, P.; Lussky, Th.; Gad, K.; Fössing, D.; Kasemann, M.; Angermann, H.: Passivation of Crystalline Silicon Wafers by Ultrathin Oxide Layers: Comparison of Wet-chemical, Plasma and Thermal Oxidation Techniques. In: Proceedings IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC). IEEE, 2018. - ISBN 978-1-5386-8529-7/18, p. 2779-2782
10.1109/PVSC.2018.8548154

Abstract:
Ultrathin oxide layers on crystalline silicon (c-Si) were prepared by different wet-chemical, plasma- and thermal oxidation techniques. The resulting electronic and chemical SiO2/Si interface properties were analyzed, compared and evaluated by combined x-ray photoemission (XPS) and surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements. Depending on the oxidation technique, chemically abrupt SiO2/Si interfaces (suboxide amounts < 5 %) with low densities of interface states (< 1×1012 cm-2eV-1) were obtained on c-Si either at low temperatures as well as at short oxidation times and in wet-chemical environment, resulting in each case in excellent interface passivation. It is shown, that chemically abrupt SiO2/Si interfaces are able to generate low interface defect states densities.