Wang, H.; Shao, Y.; Mei, S.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, M.; Sun, J.K.; Matyjaszewski, K.; Antonietti, M.; Yuan, J.: Polymer-Derived Heteroatom-Doped Porous Carbon Materials. ACS Chemical Reviews 120 (2020), p. 9363-9419
10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c00080

Abstract:
Heteroatom-doped porous carbon materials (HPCMs) have found extensive applications in adsorption/separation, organic catalysis, sensing, and energy conversion/storage. The judicious choice of carbon precursors is crucial for the manufacture of HPCMs with specific usages and maximization of their functions. In this regard, polymers as precursors have demonstrated great promise because of their versatile molecular and nanoscale structures, modulatable chemical composition, and rich processing techniques to generate textures that, in combination with proper solid-state chemistry, can be maintained throughout carbonization. This Review comprehensively surveys the progress in polymer-derived functional HPCMs in terms of how to produce and control their porosities, heteroatom doping effects, and morphologies and their related use. First, we summarize and discuss synthetic approaches, including hard and soft templating methods as well as direct synthesis strategies employing polymers to control the pores and/or heteroatoms in HPCMs. Second, we summarize the heteroatom doping effects on the thermal stability, electronic and optical properties, and surface chemistry of HPCMs. Specifically, the heteroatom doping effect, which involves both single-type heteroatom doping and codoping of two or more types of heteroatoms into the carbon network, is discussed. Considering the significance of the morphologies of HPCMs in their application spectrum, potential choices of suitable polymeric precursors and strategies to precisely regulate the morphologies of HPCMs are presented. Finally, we provide our perspective on how to predefine the structures of HPCMs by using polymers to realize their potential applications in the current fields of energy generation/conversion and environmental remediation. We believe that these analyses and deductions are valuable for a systematic understanding of polymer-derived carbon materials and will serve as a source of inspiration for the design of future HPCMs.