Lips, K.; Schulze, T. F.; Starr, D.E.; Bär, M.; Wilks, R.G.; Fenske, F.; Ruske, F.; Reiche, M.; van de Krol, R.; Reichardt, G.; Schäfers, F.; Hendel, S.; Follath, R.; Bahrdt, J.; Peredkov, S.; DeBeer, S.; Hävecker, M.; Knop-Gericke, A.; Rau, B.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Schlatmann, R.; Schlögl, R.; Rech, B.; Raoux, S.: EMIL: The energy materials in-situ laboratory Berlin - a novel characterization facility for photovoltaic and energy materials. In: Proceedings of the 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition - Hamburg 2015. Munich: WIP, 2015. - ISBN 3-936338-39-6, p. 1AO.2.1/25-28
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A knowledge-based approach towards developing a new generation of solar energy conversion devices requires a fast and direct feedback between sophisticated analytics and state-of-the-art processing/test facilities for all relevant material classes. A promising approach is the coupling of synchrotron-based X-ray characterization techniques, providing the unique possibility to map the electronic and chemical structure of thin layers and interface regions – with relevant in-system/in-situ sample preparation or in-operando analysis capabilities in one dedicated laboratory. EMIL, the Energy Materials In-situ Laboratory Berlin, is a unique facility at the BESSY II synchrotron light source. EMIL will be dedicated to the in-system, in-situ, and in-operando X-ray analysis of materials and devices for energy conversion and energy storage technologies including photovoltaic applications and photo- electrochemical processes. EMIL comprises up to five experimental end-stations, three of them can access X-rays in an energy range of 80 eV – 10 keV. For example, one key setup of EMIL combines a suite of advanced spectroscopic characterization tools with industry-relevant deposition facilities in one integrated ultra-high vacuum system. These deposition tools allow the growth of PV devices based on silicon, compound semiconductors, hybrid heterojunctions, and organo-metal halide perovskites on up to 6’’ sized substrates. EMIL will serve as a research platform for national and international collaboration in the field of photovoltaic/photocatalytic energy conversion and beyond. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the analytic and material capabilities at EMIL.