Eichner, A.; Stahlberg, S.; Sonnenberger, S.; Lange, S.; Dobner, B.; Ostermann, A.; Schrader, T.E.; Hauß, T.; Schroeter, A.; Huster, D.; Neubert, R.H.H.: Influence of the penetration enhancer isopropyl myristate on stratum corneum lipid model membranes revealed by neutron diffraction and 2H NMR experiments. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes 1859 (2017), p. 745-755
10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.01.029

Abstract:
The stratum corneum (SC) provides the main barrier properties in native skin. The barrier function is attributed to the intercellular lipids, forming continuous multilamellar membranes. In this study, SC lipid membranes in model ratios were enriched with deuterated lipids in order to investigate structural and dynamical properties by neutron diffraction and 2H solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Further, the effect of the penetration enhancer iso- propyl myristate (IPM) on the structure of a well-known SC lipid model membrane containing synthetically de- rived methyl-branched ceramide [EOS], ceramide [AP], behenic acid and cholesterol (23/10/33/33 wt%) was investigated. IPM supported the formation of a single short-periodicity phase (SPP), in which we determined the molecular organization of CER[AP] and CER[EOS]-br for the first time. Furthermore, the thermotropic phase behavior of the lipid system was analyzed by additional neutron diffraction studies as well as by 2H solid-state NMR spectroscopy, covering temperatures of 32 °C (physiological skin temperature), 50 °C, and 70 °C with a sub- sequent cooldown back to skin temperature. Both techniques revealed a phase transition and a hysteresis effect. During the cooldown, Bragg peaks corresponding to a long-periodicity phase (LPP) appeared. Additionally, 2H NMR revealed that the IPM molecules are isotopic mobile at all temperatures.