Weatherup, R.S.; Bayer, B.C.; Blume, R.; Baehtz, C.; Kidambi, P.R.; Fouquet, M.; Wirth, C.T.; Schlögl, R.; Hofmann, S.: On the mechanism of Ni-Catalysed Graphene Chemical Vapour Deposition. Chemical Physics 13 (2012), p. 2544-2549
10.1002/cphc.201101020

Abstract:
How does your graphene grow? In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements during chemical vapor deposition in Ni catalyst films show that graphene forms both isothermally and by precipitation on cooling. A coherent graphene growth model is devised and sub-surface dissolved carbon is shown to play an important role.