Demeter, J.; Menendez, E.; Schrauwen, A.; Teichert, A.; Steitz, R.; Vandezande, S.; Wildes, A.R.; Vandervorst, W.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.: Exchange bias induced by O ion implantation in ferromagnetic thin films. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 45 (2012), p. 405004/1-8
10.1088/0022-3727/45/40/405004

Abstract:
Exchange bias (EB) is induced by oxygen implantation in three different ferromagnetic materials: polycrystalline Co, highly textured Co and polycrystalline Ni. These systems are compared in order to study the influence of the grain boundary density and the intrinsic ferromagnet/antiferromagnet coupling strength on the implantation-induced EB. Special emphasis is given to the role of the implantation profile in the EB properties. The implantation profile is thoroughly characterized and its correlation with the magnetic depth profile, i.e. the magnetization as a function of depth, for different magnetic states is studied. This is achieved by modelling the implanted system as a layered system. In the three systems, the magnetization reversal mechanism is studied. In this way the effect of the implantation process on the reversal mechanism is unraveled. Irrespective of the particular system, the magnetization reverses solely by domain wall nucleation and motion, as opposed to Co/CoO bilayer systems, where a change in the reversal mechanism is observed upon the first reversal.