Brunken, S.; Krause, J.; Ellmer, K.: An energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of the nickel-sulfide assisted growth of RuS2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering. Journal of Crystal Growth 363 (2013), p. 277-281
10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2012.11.004

Abstract:
RuS2 thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic Ru target in an Ar/H2S atmosphere. The influence of Ni sputtering on the crystalline properties of the deposited RuS2 was observed in real-time using in-situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) by which it was possible to take an X-ray diffraction and fluorescence pattern every 10 seconds. Co-sputtering from a Ni target as well as pre-deposition of NiSx leads to an improved growth of the RuS2 crystallites. The size of the RuS2 crystallites increases with additional sputtering of Ni, which was proved by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Above deposition temperatures of about 673 K only the Ru phase grows without Ni assistance. Co-sputtering of Ni leads to the growth of RuS2 even at temperatures of 773 K. Thus using Ni allows higher deposition temperatures, which further improves the crystalline properties of RuS2 films.