Li, S.; Morasch, J.; Klein, A.; Chirila, C.; Pintilie, L.; Jia, L.; Ellmer, K.; Naderer, M.; Reichmann, K.; Gröting, M.; Albe, K.: Influence of orbital contributions to the valence band alignment of Bi2O3, Fe2O3, BiFeO3, and Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3. Physical Review B 88 (2013), p. 45428/1-11
10.1103/PhysRevB.88.045428

Abstract:
The formation of an interface between Bi2O3, Fe2 O3, BiFeO3, Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, and the high work function metallic RuO2 is studied using photoelectron spectroscopy with in situ RuO2 deposition. Schottky barrier heights are derived and the valence band maximum energies of the studied materials are aligned with respect to each other as well as to other functional oxides like SrTiO3 and PbTiO3. The energy band alignment follows systematic trends compared to a large number of oxides, and can be understood in terms of the contribution of Fe 3d and Bi 6s/6p (lone pair) orbitals to electronic states near the valence band maximum. The results indicate that the valence band maxima are largely determined by the local environment of the cations, which allows to estimate valence band maximum energies of oxides with multiple cations from those of their parent binary compounds. The high valence band maximum of BiFeO3 is consistent with reported p-type conduction of acceptor doped material, while the high conduction band minimum makes n-type conduction unlikely.